NCERT Solutions for Class 11 English Hornbill Chapter 3 – Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues
Give reasons for the following :
(i) King Tut’s body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny.
(ii) Howard Carter’s investigation was resented.
(iii) Carter had to chisel away the solidified resins to raise the king’s remain.
(iv) Tut’s body was buried along with gilded treasures.
(v) The boy king changed his name from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun.
(i) King Tut of Egypt was merely a teenager when he died. He belonged to a very powerful family that had ruled Egypt and its empire for centuries. He was the last heir his family. King Tut’s body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny to know more about his life and the manner in which he died. Howard Carter, a British archaeologist discoverd Tut’s tomb in 1922.
Since then the modem world has speculated about what happened to him. Even the possibility of his murder is not ruled out. The repeated scrutiny will after new clues about his life and death. That is why his dead body was bronght under CT scanner to probe medical mysteries about him.
(ii) Haward Carter, the British archaeologist had discovered Tut’s tomb in 1922. Carter’s investigation was resented because the mummy was in very bad condition due to what he did to it while investigating. This is what Zahi Hawass, Secretary-General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, felt. To separate Tut from his adomaments, Carter’s men removed the mummy’ head and severed nearly every major joint.
(iii) Howard Carter had discovered Tut’s tomb in 1922 after years of futile search¬ing. When he finally reached the mummy, he ran into trouble. The ritual resins had hardened, cementing Tut to the botton of his solid gold coffin. As Carter wrote later, no amount of legitimate force could move the resins. He set the mummy outside in blazing sunshine that heated it to 149 degrees Fahrenheit. But it had no affect at all. That is why the consolidated material or the solidified resins had to chisel away to raise the king’s remains.
(iv) Tut’s body was buried alongwith gilded treasures : precious collars, inlaid necklaces and bracelets, rings, amulets, a ceremonial apron, sandals, sheaths for his fingers and toes, inner coffin and mask—all of pure gold. In Tut’s time the royals were fabulously wealthy. They thought or hoped that they could take their riches with them. That is why Tut’s body was buried alongwith gilded treasures
(v) The boy King Tut’s original name was Tutankhaten. When a very young Tutankhaten took the throne, he soon changed his name to Tutankhamun, which means the “living image of Amun”, and oversaw a restoration of the old ways.
(i) List the deeds that led Ray Johnson to describe Akhenaten as ‘wacky’.
The new pharoah Amenhotep IV promoted the worship of the Aten, the sun disk. That is why he changed his name to Akhenaten, or “servant of the Aten”. He moved the religious capital from the old city of Thebes to the new city of Akhetaten, known as Amama.
He also shocked the country by attacking Amun a major god, smashing his images and closing his temples. Calling it “a horrfic time,” Ray Johnson, director of the university of Chicago’s research center in Luxor, the site of ancient Thebes said “and then Akhenaten went a little wacky”. Due to his unusual and strong acts, Ray Johnson calls him as crazy.
(ii) What were the results of the CT scan ?
The dead body of the boy King Tut had undergone a CT (computed tomography) scan that offers new clues about his life and death. It also provides precise data for an accurate reconstruction of the boyish pharaoh. CT scan was performed at 6 p.m. an January 5, 2005.
Consequently, a technician pulled up astomishing images of Tut on a computer screen. A grey head took shape from a scattering of pixels, and the technician spun and tilted it in every direction. Similarly neck vertebrae appeared very clearly. Other images revealed a hand, several views of the rib cage, and a transaction of the skull. The mummy was scanned by CT machine from head to toe, creating 1700 digital X-ray images.
(iii) List the advances in technology that have improved forensic analysis.
Much more than an X-ray, a CT (Computed tomography) scan provides precise data for an accurate forensic analysis. Thus now diagnastic imaging can be done with computed tomography, or CT, by which hundreds of X-rays in cross section are put together like slices of bread to create three dimensional virtual body.
Thus the mummy of the King Tut was scanned by a CT scanner from head to toe, creating 1700 digital X-ray images in cross section. Tut’s head; scanned 0.62 millimeter slices to register its intricate structures, takes on eerie detail in the resulting image. Tut’s entire body was similarly recorded. Then a team of specialists in radiology, forensics, and anatomy began to probe the secrets about him.
(iv) Explain the statement, “King Tut is one of the first mummies to be scanned in death, as in life ”
King Tut reigned for about nine years and then he died unexpectedly. As a boy king who was famous and his life being so short, he was scrutinized closely in his life. King Tut is also one of the first mummies to be scanned with a portable CT machine. That is why the author says that King Tut is one of the first mummies to be scanned in life on in death.
Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Talking About The Text
Discuss the following in groups of two pairs, each pair in group taking opposite points of view :
Scientific intervention is necessary to unearth buried mysteries.
There are many mysteries, which are buried in the past. How best can we unearth such mysteries ? One way is to investigate it from reading the description about it from the books written in those times or from hearsay, which passes from one generation to another from the word of mouth. But by these we cannot have an accurate account of the events, which have been long buried in the past.
So, the best and most accurate way is to investigate the events in a scientific manner. This is what was done in the case of King Tut. His life and death was shrouded in mystery. So, his dead body or mummy was firstly X-rayed and first recently it was made to undergo CT scan. It brought to light so many facts, which otherwise would not have been made possible.
In order to unearth past, buried mysteries, now scientific intervention is considered necessary, but it has its own disadvantages. Mostly this is being done in cases of well- preserved dead bodies or monuments, which are very old.So, these are very important to know the cultural heritage, which are preserved with religious dedication. But there is a great danger oi the objects to be investigated scientifically, being damaged to various degrees. Mostly, they do not remain in their original shape after the scientific intervention.
For instance, King Tut’s mummy was damaged or did not remain in its original form, after it was discovered and later on was scientifically investigated. Many monuments though were discovered by archaeologists, yet we don’t know whether these remain intact or not. Therefore utmost care should be taken to preserve the sanctity and identity of the objects, where scientific intervention becomes utmost necessary.
Advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence of past events.
With unprecedented scientific advancement, the technology now has considerably ad¬vanced. With advanced technology we can get clues about the life and death of a person who has died long ago. For instance, the mummy of the boy King Tut recently had undergone CT scan to know more about his life and the way he died. It also provides precise data for an accurate reconstruction of the boyish pharaoh.
The mummy was scanned by CT machine from head to toe, creating 1700 digital X-ray images. This was done to get a conclusive evidence about King Tut, to know more about his mysterious life and still more mysterious death. Thus, we can say that advanced technology gives us conclusive evidence of past events.
There is hardly any doubt that due to the progress made in various scientific fields, technology is now much more advanced. It can provide precise data for an accurate forensic analysis through CT scan. By computed tomography hundreds of X-rays in cross section can be put together to create a three dimensional virtual body. The mummy of the King Tut was scanned by a CT scanner 0.62 milimeter slices to register its intricate structures. His entire body was similarly recorded. Then a team of specialists in radiology, forensics, and anatomy began to probe the secrets about him.
Thus with the help of advanced technology, the scientists came to know a lot more about the boy King Tut. But I think they were not able to give us any conclusive and final or foolproof evidence. It has perhaps uncovered only a part about his mysterious life and death. Thus we can say that advance technology cannot give us complete and conclusive evidence of past events.
Traditions, rituals and funerary practices must be respected.
Every culture and every religion has its own rituals and last rites and funerary prac¬tices. They represent the various ways by which a person of a particular community is treated after his death. So, these must be respected. It is more important to do so because the sentiments of the entire community are attached to these rites. In Tut’s time the members of the royal family were extremely wealthy. They thought – or hoped – they could take their riches with them. That is why Tut’s body was buried alongwith gilded treasures : precious collars, inlaid necklaces and bracelets, rings, amulets etc., which were all of pure gold. So, I think traditions, rituals and funerary practices should not be questioned at all. Rather these must be honoured and respected.
Of course, we must respect the traditions rituals and funerary practices of all commu¬nities. But sometimes for archaeological, scientific and historic reasons it becomes necessary to scrutinise the body of a person, especially when he or she is an important person and his or her life is shrouded in mystery. For instance King Tut’s body has been subjected to repeated scrutiny to know more about his life and the manner in which he died. Howard Carter, a British archaeologist discovered Tut’s tomb in 1922.
But Carter’s investigation was resented because Egyptians felt that the body was in bad condition because of what he did to it while investigating. Actually the ritual resins had hardened, cementing Tut’s body to the bottom of his solid gold coffin. So he had to chisel away the solidified resins to raise the King’s remains. In fact his intention was not to show any disrespect to the ritual resins or to funerary practices. He did so to let the world know more about King Tut. Moreover at that time the technology was also not advanced. Recently also Tut’s body was taken out for CT scan. But due to it the body was not at all harmed.
Knowledge about the past is useful to complete our knowledge of the world we live in.
By knowing more and more about the glorious achievements of persons who were achievers in the past, we can get inspiration for leading our lives the way, they did it long long ago. The knowledge about the past lives of great scientists can inspire us to discover and invent. The knowledge about great warriors and their heroic deeds can inspire us to be brave. The knowledge about the lives of great writers can inspire us to write.
The knowledge about great politicians, statesmen and diplomats can inspire us to make the world we live in a better one. The past lives of the great philosophers can help us understand and make world we live in a better place. That is why a lot of people take inspiration from the autobiographies and biographies of the great men and women. Thus the knowledge about past is useful to complete our knowledge of the world we live in.
Of course the knowledge about past useful to complete our knowledge of the world we live in. But we can not take it as a general rule. Mostly, in a large numbr of cases, the knowledge of some past lives is of academic or historic interest only. It may not be useful to complete our knowledge of the world we live in. For example, the knowledge about the life of the boy King Tut may not be useful to complete our knowledge of the world we live in. We hardly know about any of his noteworthy achievements. He was a boy King who died after ruling for a short period. So, a modem man of this age, who prefers democracy, has almostly nothing much to learn from his life. So, the knowledge about the past of the persons like him can hardly be useful to complete our knowledge of the world we live in.
Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Thinking About Language
Read the following piece of information from The Encyclopedia df Language by David Crystal :
Egyptian is now extinct : its history dates from before the third millennium BC, preserved in many hieroglyphic inscriptions and papyrus manuscripts. Around The second century AD, it developed into a language known as Coptic. Coptic may still have been used as late as the early nineteenth century and is still used as a religious lajiguage by Monophysite Christians in Egypt.”
What do you think are the reasons for the extinction of languages ?
A particular language becomes extinct because either the people find it complex and complicated or it remains no more popular. The ability to use a particular language is not inherited. One learns a language from other people. So, when people stop using a language, it becomes extinct.
Do you think it is important to preserve language ?
Yes, it is very important to preserve languages. As Ben Jonson says, “Speech is the instrument of society.” Without it a society is unthinkable. Language is also the flesh and blood of our culture. So, to preserve a particular society or a culture it is very important that we preserve the language of that particular society.
In what ways do you think we could help prevent the extinction of languages and dialects ?
A language is never static. It is ever undergoing a change. If a language becomes static, it becomes unpopular and gradually, and gradually, it becomes absolute. So, to prevent a language and dialect from being extinct, it is very important that it should change and modify itself with the changing times. It should never be rigid.
Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Working With Words
Given below .are some interesting combinations of words. Explain why they have been used together :
(i) dust devils
(ii) desert sky
(iii) stunning artifacts
(iv) funerary treasures
(v) scientific detachment
(vi) dark-bellied clouds
(vii) casket grey
(viii) eternal brilliance
(ix) ritual resins
(x) virtual body
(i) Ghostly dust devils. Being a desert, there was sand or dust all around. Due to the strong wind the dust had formed various huge, ghostly shapes, which were trouble some like devils. Besides it, there were clouds which were .dark from inside. That in why the author calls these as dark-bellied.
(ii) Desert sky. Dark clouds were moving fastly across the sky in the desert or the desert-like sky which were covering the stars in the sky, which the author compares with the grey coffin.
(iii) Stunning artifacts. The author calls the artefacts stunning and extraordinary because they were in gold. Because of it, these articles had everlasting shine. That in why the author uses the expression ‘eternal brilliance’ in relation to these articles.
(iv) Funerary treasures. The treasures relating to funeral are associated with resins used at the time of last rituals after the death of King Tut. These resins were hardened cementing King Tut’s mummy to the bottom of his solid gold coffin
(v) Scientific detachment. Carter reports with scientific alooftiess having no prejudices about anything, about why the consolidated material had to be cut with a tool. But on the contrary, now with the advancement of technology and use of CT scan the potential body is created to have three-dimensional effect. There is hardly any risk of’harming the object.
Here are some commohly used medical terms. Find out their meanings :
CT scan. CT (Computed Tomography) scanning is an imaging method using invasive technique with low-level x-ray radiation. It detects disorder in abdomen, chest, spinal chord, internal haemorrhage, tumour, etc.
MRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging uses strong external magnetic field for mapping internal tissues, to highlight pathological changes and studying tissue metabolism. Imaging can he obtained from any plane.
Tomography. Tomography creates three dimensional image of internal area through – imaging, of different layers. It detects cysts, calculi cancer etc.
Autopsy. Autopsy is an examination of a dead body to discover the cause of death.
Dialysis. Dialysis means the purifying of blood by the separation of particles in a liquid on the basis of differences in their ability to pass through a membrane. This is done as a substitute for the normal function of the kidney.
ECG. i.e., electrocardiograph detects myoelectrical changes during cardiac cycle csino- atrial block, angina pectoris, valvular defects etc.
Post-mortem is an examination of a dead body to find out the cause of death.
Angiography. Angiography is a method of introducing radio-opaque contrast medium or fluoroscopic chemical through various parts of heart to study the health of walls, valves, ventricles, coronary arteries, etc. The progress could be filmed.
Biopsy. Biopsy is an examination of tissue taken from the body, to discover the presence or cause of disease.
Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Things To Do
The constellation Orion is associated with the legend of Osiris, the god of afterlife.
Find out the astronomic descriptions and legends associated with the following :
(i) Ursa Major (Saptarishi mandala)
(ii) Polaris (Dhruva tara)
(iii) Pegasus (Winged horse)
(iv) Sirius (Dog star)
(v) Gemini (Mithuna)
(i) Ursa Major (Saptarishi mandala)—The constellation Ursa Major contains the group of stars commonly called the Big Dipper. The stars that make up the Big Dipper are seven in number and follow the Greek alphabet, making them easy to remember. According to some Native American legends the bowl of the Big Dipper is a giant bear and the stars of the handle are three warriors chasing it. The constellation is low in the sky in autumn evening sky, so it was said that the hunters had injured the bear and its blood caused the trees to change colour to red.
- Right ascension : 11 hours
- Declination : 50 degrees
- Visible between latitudes 90 and—30 degrees
- Best seen in April (at 9 : 10 p.m.)
(ii) Polaris (Dhruva tara)- A star in the tip of tail of the Little Bear Ursa Minor. Its name comes to us from the Latin, Stella Polaris, meaning ‘Pole Star1. Polaris has long been an important star to sailors, caravans of old winding their way over the desert by night and others who navigated their way by the stars. Located almost directly overhead as seen from the North Pole, it is situated at the tip of the tail of the Little Bear.
Perhaps more than any star other than the sun, Polaris has been regarded as the most important star in the heavens. It has been known as many names in the past the Pathway, the Pointer, Navel of the world, Gate of Heaven. Hub of the Cosmos, the Highest Peak of the world Mountain, Lodestar the Steering Star, the Ship Star of the sea etc.
- Longitude 1900 : 27 GEM 10
longitude 2000 : 28 GEM 34
- Declination 1900 : + 88.46′
Declination 2000 : + 89.15′
- Right ascension : 2h 31m
- Latitude : + 66.05′
- Spectral class : F8
- Magnitude : 2.1
In Scandinavian mythology the Norse gods made the Universe out of the bits and pieces of the hacked-up bodies of their defeated enemies. To finish the job they hammered an enormous spike, called Veralder Nagli or World Spike, into the centre of thd Universe and made the sky revolve about it. The end of the spike had a jeweled nail-ljiead, which remained forever fixed on the great sky dome as Polaris.
The Arabs of old regarded Polaris as a hole in the sky in which Earth’s axis found its bearing. They looked on the star as an evil star, calling it Ae Kiblah, because it was the star ‘least distant from the pole’. It was Polaris, they said, who had slain the great warrior of the sky who forever lies in the huge coffin outlined by the stars marking the Big Dipper. All the other stars mourn for their lost hero and each night march slowly around the sky in a never hiding funeral procession. The villain, Polaris, alone is kept motionless, an outcast forever fixed to the coldest part of the northern sky.
(iii) Pegasus (winged horse). The white winged horse Pegasus was the offspring of Poseidon and the Gorgon, Medusa, springing from the latter’s neck when she was killed by Perseus. He immediately flew to mount Helicon and struck the ground with his hoof. The resulting stream which flowed from the spot he had pawned became sacred to the Muses. Sometime later Pegasus was to help Perseus to rescue Andromeda from the dreadful sea monster Cetus.
Bellerophon, the grandson of Sisyphus (a selfish man punished by the Gods for his arrogance by being forced to continually push an enormous boulder to the top of a hill, only for it to roll back down just as the goal seemed within reach) was also greatly aided by Pegasus when undertaking several dangerous, missions including his fight against the chimaera, the three-headed monstrous female. However, the success of this and other mis¬sions turned Bellerophon’s head and he too, became arrogant.
So much so, that although a mere mortal, he forced Pegasus to fly him to Mount Olympus, the home of the Gods. Zeus, greatly annoyed at Bellerophon’s presumption that he was worthy to in such august company, sent an insect to bite Pegasus on his flank, causing him to rear up and throw Bellerophon to the ground. He was then idispatched back to earth, and ended his days as a sad and lonely figure, blind and lame. For Pegasus, however, there was the reward of a place in the stables on Mount Olympus, and the opportunity to carry around Zeus’ thunderbolts.
(iv) Sirius (Dog Star). Sirius is the brightest star in the night-time sky, with a visual apparent magnitude of-1.46. It is located in the constellation Canis Major. Its name comes from the Latin sirius, from Greek, means ‘glowing’. It is situated m the eye of the greater dog Canis Major, therefore, it is known as the Dog Star.’ Sirius can be seen from every inhabited region of the Earth’s surface and, in the Northern Hemisphere, is known as a vertex of the ‘winter triangle.’
At a distance of 8.57 light years, Sirius is also one of the nearest stars of Earth. The best time of year to view it is around January 1, when it reaches the Meridian at mid-night.In Greek mythology, Orion’s dog became Sirius. The Greeks also associated Sirius with the heat of summer-calling it Seirios often translated the Scorcher’.
In the Sumerian Civilization, predating the Egyptians, their one poem describes a dream of Gilgamesh where the hero is drawn irresistibly to a heavy star that can’t be lifted immense effort. This star descends from heaven to him and is described as having a very ‘potent essence’ and being ‘the God of Heaven’. Gilgamesh had for his companions, 50 oarsmen in the great ship, Argo, a constellation bordering Canis Major, where Sirius is found.
(v) Gemini (Mithuna)—Gemini northern constellation lying on the ecliptic (the sun’s apparent path through the heavens) between Taurus and Cancer N of Canis Minor it is one of the constellation of the Zodiac. Gemini is traditionally defected as two men. The two brightest stars in Gemini, Castor and Pollux (north of the bright star Procyon in Canis Minor), are two of the brightest stars in the sky and were identified by the Greeks with two children, in most accounts the twin sons of Zeus and Leda. The Egyptians identified the two stars with a pair of young goats.
An annual meteor shower known as the Geminids appears to radiate from this constel¬lation during the second week in December. As one of the most prominent zodiacal constellation, Gemini actually looks like its namesake. This brilliant constellation can be seen rising in the east during the long winter evenings of December, and by the frosty early hours of the morning is virtually overhead.
In Greek mythology. Castor and Pollux were twin heroes. The two were bom from an egg laid by Leda after she was seduced by Zeus in the disguise of a Swan. The two brothers were good companions and became gods, Patrons of athletes and protectors of sailors at sea. Castor and Pollux had power over the wind and waves. Castor became famous as a rider of horses while his brother Pollux became equally skilled at boxing and fighting battles.
They were legendary adventurers and fighters. They were members of the Argonauts, the group of brave young men who set off with Jason in pursuit of the Golden Fleece. They were also known for their constant rivalry with Theseus of Athens. Theseus, in fact, kidnapped their sister Helen one day and locked her up in Athens. When Theseus was away attending to other business, Castor and Pollux stormed the city and took Helen back.
As may seem fitting, the twins died fighting while they were still relatively young. Castor was killed is a struggle with the Leucippidae, who were actually cousins of his. Zeus saw the struggle and the death from his place in the heavens. He took pqllux up to the heaven. Pollux did not want to be immortal while his brother was still in Hades. He begged Zeus to bring his brother up to the sky. Zeus finally consented, whereupon the brother remained and reunited together forever.
Some of the leaves and flowers mentioned in the passage for adorning the dead are willow, olive, celery, lotus, cornflower. Which of these are common in our country ?
Willow trees are found in Kashmir and some other hilly areas. Cornflower is also found in some southern areas. Celery is found but quite scarce. But lotus is most common in our country.
Name some leaves and flowers that are used as adornments in our country.
In our country marigold and rose flowers are most commonly used as adorn¬ments. Decoration with banana tree leaves is also considered auspicious.
Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Extra Questions and Answers
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow :
He was just a teenager when he died. The last heir of a powerful family that had ruled Egypt and its empire for centuries, he was laid to rest laden with gold and eventually forgotten. Since the discovery of his tomb in 1922, the modem world has speculated about what happened to him, with murder being the most extreme possibility. Now, leaving his tomb for the first time in almost 80 years, Tut has undergone a CT scan that offers new clues about his life and death and provides precise data for an accurate forensic reconstruc¬tion of the boyish pharaoh. (Page 22)
(i) Why has Tut been called last heir ?
(ii) When did Tut die ? How was he laid to rest ?
(Hi) What has the modern world speculated about King Tut ?
(iv) Why did Tut’s mummy undergo CT scan ?
(v) Form noun froms of the following words.
(i) King Tut is called the last heir because he died when he was teenager without having any issue or descendent.
(it) Tut died when he was just a teenager. He was laid to rest laden with gold. v (Hi) The modem world has speculated about what had happened to him. It is feared that he might have been possibly murdered.
(iv) Tut’s mummy had undergone CT scan to probe new clues about his life and death and to provide precise data for an accurate forensic reconstruction of him
(v) (a) ruler
“The mummy is in very bad condition because of what Carter did in the 1920,” said Zahi Hawass, Secretary-General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, as he leaned over the body for a long first lock. Carter-Howard Carter, that is was the British archae¬ologist who in 1922 discovered Tut’s tomb after years of futile searching. Its contents, though hastily ransacked in antiquity, were surprisingly complete. They remain the richest royal collection ever found and have become part of the pharaoh’s legend. (Page 23)
(i) Who is Zahi Hawass ? What did he comment ?
(ii) Who was Carter and what did he do in 1920s ?
(Hi) How valuable were the contents of Tut’s tomb ?
(iv) Was it easy for Carter to discover Tut’s tomb ?
(v) What do you mean by :
(i) Zahi Hawass is the Secretary-General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities. He commented that the mummy was in bad condition because of what Carter did in the 1920s.
(ii) Howard Carter was a British archaeologist who discovered Tut’s tomb in 1922.
(iii) The contents of King Tut’s tomb were highly valuable. They are said to be are of the richest royal collection ever found.
(iv) Howard Carter was able to discover Tut’s tomb after years of useless searching.
(v) (a) remains of ancient times.
(b) a title of the ancient Egyptian Kings.
Archaeology has changed substantially in the intervening decades, focusing less an treasure and more on the fascinating details of life and intriguing mysteries of death. It also uses more sophisticated tools, including medical technology. In 1968, more that 40 years after Carter’s discovery, an anatomy professor X-rayed the mummy and revealed a startling fact. Beneath the resin that cakes his chest, his breast-bone and front ribs are missing. Today diagnostic imaging can be done with computed tomography, or CT, by which hundreds of X-rays in cross section are put together like slices of bread to create a three¬dimensional virtual body. (Page 25)
(i) In what respect has archaeology changed now ?
(ii) How does the archaologists carry on their research now ?
(iii) What startling fact was revealed in 1968 ?
(iv) How is the diagnostic imaging done these days ?
(v) Find the words in the passage which mean
(a) lying between.
(b) the science of body structure.
(i) Archaeology is now focusing more on the fascinating details of life and the hidden mysteries of death.
(ii) Now the archaeologists carry on their research by using more sophisticated tools, including medical technology.
(iii) In 1968 an anatomy professor X-rayed the Tut’s mummy and revealed the startling fact that at his breast-bone and front ribs were missing.
(iv) These days the diagnostic imaging is done with computed tomography or CT.
(v) (a) intervening,
Amenhotep III—Tut’s father or grandfather was a powerful pharaoh who ruled for almost four decades at the height of the eighteenth dynasty’s golden age. His son Amenhotep IV succeeded him and initiated one of the strangest periods in the history of ancient Egypt. The new pharaoh promoted the worship of the Aten, the sun disk, changed his name to Akhenaten, or “servant of the Aten”, and moved the religious capital from the old city of Thebes tq the new city of Akhetaten, known now as Amama. He further shocked the country by attacking Amun, a major God, smashing his images and closing his temples, (Pages 25-26)
(i) How long did Amenhotep III rule ?
(ii) Who succeeded Amenhotep III and what did he initiate ?
(iii) What did Amehatep IV promote ?
(iv) Why was the country shocked ?
(v) Use the following words in your own sentences :
(i) Amenhotep III ruled for almost four decades. That was the hieght of the 18th dynas¬ty’s golden age.
(ii) Amenhotep IV or Akhenaten succeeded Amenhotep III and he initiated one of the strangest periods in the history of ancient Egypt.
(iii) Amenhotep IV, who later changed his name to Akhenaten, promoted the worship of the Aten, the sun disk.
(iv) The country was shocked because Akhenaten attacked Amun, a major god, smashed his images and closed his temples.
(a) The evidence turned hostile and the real culprit could not be punished.
(b) India is an ancient country whose culture and civilization are very old.
Regardless of his fame and the speculations about his fate, Tut is one mummy among many in Egypt. How many ? No one knows. The Egyptian Mummy Project, which began an inventory in late 2003, has recorded almost 600 so far and is still counting. The next phase : scanning the mummies with a portable CT machine donated by the National Geographic Society and Siemens, its manufacturer. King Tut is one of the first mummies to be scanned—in death, as in life, moving regally ahead of his countrymen. (Page 26)
(i) Which institution is keeping record of the mummies ?
(ii) How many mummies have been recorded so far ?
(iii) What is the next phase ?
(iv) By whom is the CT machine donated ?
(v) Give noun forms of
(i) The Egyptian Mummy Project is keeping the record of the mummies since 2003.
(ii.) So far 600 mummies have been recorded and they are still counting.
(iii) The next phase is scanning the mummies with a portable CT machine.
(iv) The portable CT machine has been donated by the National Geographic Society and by its manufacturers Siemens.
(v) (a) donation.
ACT machine scanned the mummy head to toe, creating 1700 digital X-ray images in cross section. Tut’s head, scanned in 0.62 millimeter slices to register its intricate struc¬tures, taking an eerie detail in the resulting image. With Tut’s entire body similarly recorded, a team of specialists in radiology, forensics and anatomy began to probe the secrets that the winged goddesses of a gilded burial shrine protected for so long. The night of the scan,workmen carried Tut from the tomb in his box. Like pallbearers they climbed a ramp and a flight of stairs into the swirling sand outside, then rose on a hydraulic lift into the trailer that held the scanner.
(i) Whom does ‘the mummy’ refer to ?
(ii) What was the outcome of scanning ?
(iii) How was Tut’s head scanned ?
(iv) Who began to probe the secrets ?
(v) Find words in the passage which mean
(b) a vehicle drawn by another.
(i) ‘The mummy’ refers to the preserved dead body of King Tut.
(ii) The CT machine created 1700 digital X-ray images in cross section.
(iii) Tut’s head was scanned in 0.62 millimeter slices to register its intricate structures, taking a strange and frightening detail in the resulting image.
(iv) A team of specialists in radiology, forensics, and anatomy began to proble the secrets about Tut’s life and death.
(v) (a) probe
Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Extra Questions Short Answer Type : (in 20-30 words)
Who was Tut ?
Tut was the last heir of a powerful family that had ruled Egypt and its empire for centuries. He was made king when he was very young. He ruled for nine years. He died unexpectedly when he was just a teenager.
What has the modem world speculated about King Tut ?
King Tut was laid to rest more than 3,300 years ago as a mummy. Not much is known about his life and death. So, the modem world has speculated about what had happened to him. It is feared that he might have been possibly murdered.
Why did King Tut’s mummy have to undergo CT scan ?
King Tut died unexpectedly when he was just a teenager. So, his mummy had undergone CT scan to probe new clues about his life and death and to provide precise data for an accurate forensic reconstmction of him.
What did Carter find in the first coffin ?
Carter, a British archaeologist began investigating Tut’s three nested coffins. On opening the first, he found a shroud adorned with garlands of willow and olive leaves, wild celefy, lotus petals, and cornflowers.
“When he finally reached the mummy, though, he ran into trouble.” Who ran into trouble and why ?
Howard Carter ran into trouble when he finally reached the mummy of King Tut, which he had discovered in 1922. His trouble was that the ritual resins had hardened, cementing Tut to the bottom of his solid gold coffin.
Who is Zahi Hawass ? What did he comment about Carter ?
Zahi Hawass is the Secretary-General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities. He commented that the mummy of Tut was in bad shape because of what Carter did in the 1920s. Carter had discovered Tut’s tomb in 1922.
Why did Carter set the mummy of Tut outside in blazing sunshine ?
For several hours Carter set the mummy of King Tut outside in blazing sunshine that heated it to 149 degrees Fahrenheit. He did so to loosen the resins which had cemented Tut to the botton of his solid gold coffin.
In what respect has archaeology changed in modern times ?
In modem times archaeology has changed considerably. Now it is focusing less on treasures. It is now focusing more on the fascinating details of life and the hidden mysteries of death.
How does the archaeologists carry on their research now ?
With the advancement of technology, the methods of research of the archaeolo¬gists have also undergone a change. Now they use more sophisticated tools, including medical technology like CT scan etc. to carry on their research.
What startling fact was revealed in 1968 ?
King Tut had died unexpectedly when he was just a teenager. In 1968, a profes¬sor of anatomy X-rayed Tut’s mummy. He revealed the startling fact that his breast-bone and front ribs were missing.
Who began to probe the secrets after CT scanning of Tut’s mummy was performed ?
The life and death of King Tut was shrouded in mystery. After CT scanning of his body was performed successfully, a team of specialists in radiology, forensics, and anatomy began to probe the secrets about Tut’s life and death.
Why does the author say Amenhotep IV initiated one of the strangest periods in the history of ancient Egypt ?
The author says so because Amentotep IV promoted the worship of the Aten, the sun disk. He moved the religious capital to the new city of Akhetaten. He attacked a major god Amun, smashed his images and closed his temples.
What are the main functions of the Egyptian Mummy Project?
The main functions of the Egyptian Mummy Project are to keep a record of number of mummies. They began an inventory in late 2003 and has recorded 600 so far and is still counting. They also get the mummies scanned by donated CT machine.
How did Zahi Hawass feel after the CT scan was completed ?
Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of Egypt’s Supreme Council of Antiquities, felt relieved after the CT scanning was completed. He was so worried that he could not sleep a day before Tut’s mummy was to be CT scanned. He was relieved because nothing had gone seriously wrong.
Discovering Tut: The Saga Continues Extra Questions Long Answer Type (in about 100-150 words)
Who was Tutankhaten ? Why had his mummy been undergone CT scan ?
The boy King Tutankhaten is more popularly known as King Tut. He was the last heir of a powerful family that had ruled Egypt and its empire for centuries. Bom as Tutankhaten, he took the throne when he was very young. He soon changed his name to Tutankhamun which means “living image of Amun.” He reigned for about nine years. Then he died unexpectedly when he was just a teenager.
He was laid to rest, more than 3,300 years ago in the Egyptian cemetery known as the valley of the kings. He was buried with valuable artefacts of pure gold because in his times the kings believed that they could take their wealth with them after their death. King Tut’s mummy had undergone a CT scan to know in a scientific manner, new clues about his life and death. It was also undertaken to get precise data for an accurate forensic reconstruction of him.
Who discovered King Tut’s tomb for the first time ?
After years of futile searching, Howard Carter, a British archaeologist was first to discover King Tut’s tomb in 1922. It Tut’s time the royals were fabulously wealthy. They believed that they could take their riches with them after their death. So, various kinds of artefacts in pure gold were found by Carter in the coffin of King Tut. After months of carefully recording Tut’s funerary treasures, Carter began investigating his three nested coffins. When he opened the first one, Carter found a shroud adorned with garlands of willow and olive leaves, wild celery, lotus petals and cornflowers.
“When he finally reached the mummy, though, he ran into trouble.” Who ran into trouble and how did he find a solution ?
Howard Carter, a British archaeologist, was the first person to discover the tomb of King Tut in 1922 after years of futile searching. He ran into trouble when he finally reached the mummy in Tut’s coffin. Carter found that the ritual resins had hardened over the years, cementing Tut to the bottom of his solid gold coffin. Carter later wrote that no amount of legitimate force could move them.
Carter set the mummy outside the blazing sunshine for several hours to loosen the resin. But it also did not work.Therefore Carter had no other alternative than to chisel away the consolidated material from beneath the limbs and trank before it was possible to raise the King’s remains. Had Carter not cut the mummy free, the thieves most certainly would have ripped it apart to remove the gold.
How has the archaeological investigation changed in the modem times ?
In modem times the means of archaeological investigation have changed considerably. Now archaeology is focusing less on treasure and more on the fascinating details of life and intriguing mysteries of death. Another change is that with the advancement of technology it now uses more sophisticated tools, including medical technology.
For instance, in 1968 an anatomy professor X-rayed the mummy of Tut and found that beneath the resin that cakes his chest, his breast-bone and front ribs were missing. Today diagnostic imaging can be done with computed tomography or CT. By it hundreds of X-rays in cross section are put together like slices of bread to create a three-dimensional virtual body. That is why the mummy of King Tut was CT scanned.
How was the mummy of King Tut CT scanned ?
CT scanning of King Tut’s mummy started at 6 p.m. on January 5, 2005. on the night of the scan, workmen carried mummy of Tut from the tomb in his box. Like pallbear¬ers they brought the mummy into the sand outside. Then they rose on a hydraulic lift into the trailer that held the scanner. The scanning started after the substitute fans were attached. The original fans stopped working because of sand in the cooler fan.
After checking that no data had been lost, the technicians turned Tut over to the workmen who carried him back to his tomb. This procedure took less than three hours. Back in the trailer, a technician pulled up astonishing images of Tut on a computer screen. A gray head took shape from a scattering of pixels, and the technician spun and tilted it in every direction. Similarly images of other parts of the body appeared on the screen.